History of Schleswig Holstein

Written by Hans-Peter Voß, a Professional Genealogist in Schleswig-Holstein
 http://www.Hans-Peter-Voss.de/

FOREWORD: To understand the causes of the various wars and conflicts in Schleswig-Holstein, it is necessary to understand its political developments. The relationships between the various governing families and dynasties and their interbal disputes and conflicts must also be explored.
However, I am not a historian. I gleaned these historical data from a variety of sources. Therefore, the reader should not expect a detailed exploration of Schleswig-Holstein's history; rather, it is to be taken as a broad outline of events.
Hans-Peter Voß, in December of the year 2000.

Towards the end of the Great Migrations of the Germanic peoples which began around A.D. 250, the Saxons who had come from the area around the northern Elbe River had settled in central and western Holstein. The Slavic tribes had populated eastern Holstein. Danes and Jutes had moved to southeastern Schleswig, and the Frisians had populated western Schleswig and the islands in the North Sea. The area settled by the Saxons was bounded by the Eider river in the north, the North Sea towards the west, and the Elbe river in the south. The eastern boundary was formed by a line running from the Kiel Fjord via the Schwentine river and the middle Trave river to Boizenburg.

 Around A.D.800, three distinct areas had formed: Dithmarschen, Holstein and Stormarn. Around 800, in the course of expanding Christianity northward, the Frankish tribes of Charlemagne occupied this area. In 810 Charlemagne built a castle on the River Stör near Itzehoe. The western boundary of Frankish influence followed the line Kiel Fjord - Boizenburg, the northern boundary was the Eider river. In 974 a conflict arose between the Franks and the Danes; the latter were defeated at the Danevirke, a series of ramparts began to be erected in 737 between Hollingstedt on the Treene river in the west and the head of the Sliefjord near Haithabu and the present-day Schleswig in the east. Christianity expanded throughout northern Europe.

Denmark developed into a world power and conquered England. The King of Denmark assumed the titles and powers of King of England, King of Scotland and King of Norway. The King of Denmark and Emperor Konrad II developed friendly relations. The Emperor relinquished his control over the area between the Eider river and the Sliefjord; this area remained uninhabited. The Eider river was recognized as the southern boundary of the Danish empire.

After further wars with the Slavs who were defeated around 1090, Duke Lothar of Saxony invested Count Adolf of Schauenburg with Holstein and Stormarn. In 1187 the Danes occupied the island of Rügen as well as Pomerania and Mecklenburg. During the war of 1200-1203, the Danish King Knud and his brother, Duke Waldemar of Schleswig, conquered Holstein, Stormarn, Hamburg, Lübeck and Ratzeburg. In the Battle of Bornhöved on July 22, 1227, the Danish King Waldemar II was defeated. Denmark lost the conquered provinces and cities and the Eider river was re-established as the southern boundary of the Danish kingdom. Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg reclaimed the County of Holstein-Stormarn.

In 1237, Duke Abel of Schleswig married the daughter of Count Adolf IV of Holstein-Stormarn and thus established a relationship between the two houses. In 1275 the title of "Duke of Schleswig" became a hereditary one, thereby ensuring the succession within the family. Extraordinary taxes were no longer remitted to the King of Denmark but were paid instead to the Duke of Schleswig. In 1260, Mechtild, the widow of Duke Abel of Schleswig, mortgaged her possessions between the Eider river and the Sliefjord to her brothers, the counts Gerhard I and Johann I. Other areas, such as the City of Eckernförde and the Danish Wold, were mortgaged to of the Holsteiners.

The borders were now open, and many members of the Holstein nobility penetrated into the border areas and settled there. In Denmark, disputes arose between the nobles and the Danish King Christopher II. The nobles asked the Duke of Schleswig for assistance. Count Gerhard III of Rendsburg was acting on behalf of his nephew, Duke Valdemar V of Schleswig (a minor, the son of Duke Abel of Schleswig). In 1326, King Christopher II was defeated in the battle of Hesterberg near Schleswig, and was banished. Count Gerhard III forced the Danish nobility to elect his nephew, Duke Valdemar V of Schleswig, King of Denmark. Count Gerhard III was appointed guardian and regent, and governed the kingdom. The charter of 1326 documenting these events and decisions stipulates that the Duchy of Schleswig shall never again be possessed by the King of Denmark. In the light of Valdemar V's accession to the throne, Count Gerhard III was invested with the Duchy of Schleswig as a hereditary possession. For the first time, Schleswig and Holstein were united under a member of the Schauenburg dynasty.

Accordingly, since 1290 there are five ruling branches of the House of Schauenburg, named after the locations of their respective strongholds: Segeberg, Kiel, Plön, Pinneberg and Rendsburg.

 Additionally, Gerhard III was ceded the island of Fun, Johann III of Plön received the island of Lolland in addition to Fehmarn. When King Christopher II returned to the throne in 1330, the Duchy of Schleswig reverted to a Duke of the Abel lineage, however, Count Gerhard III retained control of Schleswig, received Northern Jutland as security and the island of Fun as hereditary fiefdom. On the death of King Christopher II in 1332, almost all of Denmark had been mortgaged to Counts Gerhard III and Johann III who were jointly governing the country. In 1340 Count Gerhard III was assassinated during an attempt to put down an uprising in Jutland. This set off a struggle for control of Schleswig that was to last for 100 years.

King Valdemar IV Atterdag who reigned from 1340 to 1375 succeeded in redeeming the mortgages and to re-unite most of the country. However, his attack on the town of Visby and his conquest of the Island of Gotland resulted in a state of war with the Hanseatic League and with Sweden and Norway. The Dukes of Holstein fought on the side of the Hanseatic League. A peace treaty was signed in Stralsund on May 24, 1370 and a further settlement in Flensburg in 1373. The Counts withdrew from the occupied North Jutland, however, they retained the greater part of Schleswig as security. In 1375 the last remaining Duke of Schleswig (of Abel's descendants) died, and shortly afterwards so did Valdemar IV Atterdag, the last of the Danish royal dynasty of Sven Estridsen. Margaret, the youngest daughter of Valdemar IV and the widow of the Norwegian King Haakon, now assumed the responsibilities of government in Denmark on behalf of her minor son Olav. When Olav died in 1387 Margaret was crowned Queen of Denmark. On August 15, 1386 she invested Count Gerhard VI of Rendsburg with Schleswig as a hereditary Dukedom. This united Schleswig and Holstein, and the ducal crests of Schleswig and Holstein form the combined crest of Schleswig-Holstein.

Count Gerhard was killed in battle in Dithmarschen in 1404; inheritance disputes arose. In 1410 the war over the possession of Schleswig began when the Holsteiners attacked Flensburg. The newly crowned Danish King Christopher III was forced on April 30, 1440 to transfer the entire Duchy of Schleswig to Duke Adolf VIII as hereditary fiefdom. This united Schleswig and Holstein as one state under one ruler. Except for the Pinneberg line, all other counties were now under the control of descendants of the Rendsburg line. When Duke Adolf VIII died in 1459 without an heir, no other Count could advance a claim on both duchies. The Nobles met to elect a new Duke but after several rounds of voting no successor emerged. King Christian I of Denmark (who was a descendant of the counts of the House of Oldenburg and who was elected King of Denmark in 1448) intervened by calling the nobility to Ripen [Ribe] where he was elected as Duke Adolf's successor on March 2, 1460. On March 5, 1460, the assembled nobles agreed to the terms of a Freiheitsbrief, a "Charter of Freedom " containing numerous laws and regulations. It also contained the statement regarding Schleswig and Holstein "dat se bliven ewich tosamende ungedelt", namely, that the two provinces are to remain forever undivided, that they are never to be separated. King Christian's objective of this arrangement was to ensure the retention of Holstein, but the effect was that the Danish province of Schleswig became inextricably linked to the German province of Holstein.

This is something Christian did not and could not foresee, yet this proved to be a pivotal event and was to become the basis for significant disputes in the future. Attempts in 1482 to elect a single successor to the sovereign did not succeed, with the result that two brothers were elected: Johannes, or Hans, as King of Denmark, and his brother Frederik who was still a minor. When Frederik came of age the provincial estates were partitioned as follows:

King Hans received the following castles and/or districts: [today's' place names in parentheses]
    Segeberg
    Rendsburg
    Flensburg
    Apenrade [Åbenrå]
    Alsen [Als]
    Arö [Ærø]
    Fehmarn

while Duke Frederik of Gottorf received the following:
    Gottorf
    Eiderstedt
    Eckernförde
    Stapelholm
    Hadersleben [Haderslev]
    Tondern [Tønder]
    Kiel
    Plön
    Neumünster
    Oldenburg
    Neustadt
    Trittau
    Steinburg
    Itzehoe

They governed on the principle of "united we govern, divided we march", i.e. they jointly governed Schleswig and Holstein but each had his own army and pursued his own goals. Thus they jointly attempted to subdue the Dithmarschers but suffered a devastating defeat on February 17, 1500.

The Dithmarschen Wars

For many centuries Dithmarschen was an independent and free peasant state, maintaining political association with the north German bishopric of Bremen. In 1319 Gerhard the Great attempted to subjugate Dithmarschen but lost the battle of Wöhrden. Also Duke Albrecht died in battle in 1403. His brother, Gerhardt VI of Schleswig, lost the battle in the Hamme near Heide on August 4, 1404, and was killed along with many of his knights.

King Johann I and Duke Friedrich exacted that Dithmarschers recognize their sovereignty and pay an annual tribute of 15,000 Marks. They further demanded that three strongholds be erected. The Dithmarschers rejected these demands which led to another war in February, 1500. An army of 15,000 soldiers consisting of 5,000 members of the Black Guard commanded by Squire Schlentz and 10,000 Schleswig, Holstein and Danish knights invaded Dithmarschen and occupied Meldorf.

Commanded by Wolf Isebrand, the Dithmarschers erected fortifications near Hemmingstedt. Because of the Spring thaw, only certain roads were passable. The Dithmarschers opened the sluice gates and flooded the surrounding countryside.

With the battle cry "Wahr di Garr de Bur de kumt" = "Look out, peasant, here comes the Guard!" the attackers stormed the battlements but they lacked mobility on the narrow roadway and thus the defenders repelled the attackers. Squire Schlentz and numerous knights died in battle. The Dithmarschers then launched a counter-attack crying "Look out, Guard, here come the peasants!" The battle of February 17, 1500 cost the lives of a large part of Holstein, Schleswig and Danish nobility, and the Danish battle flag, the "Dannebrog", was captured by the people of Dithmarschen.

In 1559 King Frederik II, Duke Adolf and Duke Johann entered into a treaty for the pupose of subjugating the Dithmarschers. Under the command of Johann Rantzau they raised an army of 25,000 men which was opposed by a mere 6,000 Dithmarschers. After Rantzau occupied Meldorf, Brunsbüttel was captured as well, leaving the southern part of Dithmarschen in the hands of the conquerors. On June 13, 1559, near Heide, the Dithmarschers were defeated with heavy losses in a decisive battle. Peace was concluded at Lohe on June 20, 1559. This was the last war fought between Schleswig-Holsteiners, and peace reigned until 1625.

On February 17, 1900, a memorial was inaugurated at the Dusenddüwelswarf to
commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Battle of Dithmarschen. At the time
this was believed to be the location of the entrenchment, however, more
recent research has suggested that the entrenchment must have been located
some 4 km further in the direction of Hemmingstedt.

 

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Continued History of Schleswig-Holstein

While King Hans commenced hostilities against Sweden, Duke Frederik remained neutral, even when his nephew Christian II was crowned King of Denmark in 1513. The Treaty of Bordesholm of 1522 stipulated that Schleswig and Holstein would remain neutral in the war against Sweden. However, when the Danish nobility rebelled against King Christian II they sought the assistance of the Duke of Gottorf, and in 1523 Frederik's army marched northward under the command of Field Marshall Johann Rantzau. King Christian II fled and on April 14, 1523 Frederik became sole ruler of Denmark. In August, 1524, he was crowned in Copenhagen King Frederik I of Denmark.

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He was followed in 1533 by his son Christian III who abolished the Catholic church in Holstein, Schleswig, Denmark and Norway, and established the Reformation by law. In 1544 there occurred another partition between King Christian III and his step-brothers Johann (The Elder) and Adolf.

Adolf received the Gottorf part:
    Apenrade [Åbenrå],
    South Schleswig,
    Kiel,
    Neumünster,
    Cismar,
    Oldenburg,
    Neustadt,
    Trittau and Reinbek.

Johann would control the Hadersleben part:
    Hadersleben [Haderslev],
    Tondern [Tønder],
    Lügumkloster [Løgumkloster],
    Nordstrand,
    the Osterharde on Föhr,
    Sylt,
    Fehmarn,
    Rendsburg,
    Bordesholm as well as smaller parts of Holstein.

The king retained the Sonderburg [Sønderborg] part:
    Alsen [Als],
    Arö [Ærø],
    Northern Anglia,
    the districts Flensburg and Bredstedt,
    Segeberg,
    Oldesloe,
    Plön,
    Steinburg,
    Reinfeld and Ahrensböck.

All three united in a war against the Dithmarschers in 1599 who were defeated and whose land was divided into three equal parts. In 1564 King Frederik III of Denmark (the son of Christian III) ceded one-third of his possessions to his brother Johann The-Younger who received Sonderburg [Sønderborg], Norburg [Nordborg], Arö [Ærø], Plön and Ahrensbök.

A further partitioning occurred in 1581 when the Hadersleben [Haderslev] part was divided between King Frederik II and Duke Adolf II of Gottorf:

Duke Adolf received the districts of Tondern [Tønder], Lügumkloster [Løgumkloster] and Bordesholm in addition to Nordstrand, the Osterharde on Föhr, Sylt, Fehmarn as well as the northern part of Dithmarschen.

King Frederik received Hadersleben [Haderslev] and Rendsburg. Schleswig and Holstein yet again had two rulers.

Duke Hans the Younger received Reinfeld, Sundewitt, and the possessions of the Rude Monastery where he built his Glücksburg Castle.
On his death in 1622 his possessions were divided amongst his five sons: the duchies Sonderburg, Norburg, Arö, Glücksburg und Plön were built.
Arö would be divided between the other four in 1624.

The Thirty-Year War. (This part is not ready until today and will be added at a later time)

King Frederik III died in 1670 and was succeeded by his son King Christian V who reigned from 1670 to 1699. In 1673 the last Count of the Oldenburg and Delmenhorst line died. His estates were inherited by the Duke of Plön who, by way of a secret agreement, had renounced his entitlement in favour of the King of Denmark, and so it fell into the hands of King Christian V. On May 30, 1684, King Chrstian V assumed the ducal part of Schleswig but returned it to Duke Christian Albrecht on July 20, 1689 under the terms of the Settlement of Altona.

Partitioning of Schleswig-Holstein - Around 1700

Duke Christian Albrecht died in 1694 and was succeeded by his son Frederik IV. Frederik was married to the sister of the Swedish King Karl XII and was appointed Supreme Commander of the Swedish armies in Germany. There followed a five year long quarrel with King Christian V who had formed an alliance with Saxony, Poland and Russia. Sweden and Gottorf were allied with Lüneburg. In March, 1700, the Nordic War broke out.

The history of this War (This part is not ready until today and will be added at a later time)

On March 13, 1713 King Frederik IV took possession of the Schleswig lands of the Duke; only the Holstein lands remained with the Gottorf dynasty. From this day on until 1864 the King of Denmark and the Duke of Schleswig were one and the same person. Since the end of the Nordic War in 1721 Duke Karl Friedrich of Gottorf was Duke of Holstein only. In 1725 he married Anna Petrovna, a daughter of Czar Peter the Great of Russia; they lived in Kiel Castle from 1727 to 1739. Their son Karl Peter Ulrich was first in line of succession to Russia's throne and was crowned Czar Peter III of Russia in 1762. The new czar prepared for war with Denmark but was murdered before hostilities could begin. His wife, the Czarina Katharina II, concluded a Treaty of Friendship with Denmark in 1765. The successor to the Russian throne, Paul, relinquished his Holstein possessions in favour of Denmark which incorporates Holstein into the Danish Kingdom. In return, the Danish king relinquished the Counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (the latter became a Duchy in 1777) in favour of the House Gottorf. Once more, both Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were re-united under the Danish royal house.

Earlier the Danish king had enlarged his possessions as follows: - in 1729 = Duchy of Norburg [Nordborg] on Alsen [Als] - in 1726 = Duchy of Rantzau (formerly Barmstedt District) - in 1761 = Duchy of Plön - in 1779 = the possessions of the the Duke of Glücksburg on Sundewitt and in North Anglia

The reform of farm and agrarian policies in royal estates in 1768 led to new forms of land ownership and agrarian arrangements including the abolishment of bondage and serfdom, and the transfer of title to farmers who now obtained land as their own property. In ducal and county estates, bondage and serfdom was abolished as of January 1, 1805. These reforms enabled farmers to obtain free title to land or enter into crop-sharing or leasing arrangements, both on a short-term and a hereditary basis.

On November 8, 1771, King Christian VII abolished the patronymic naming system:

Edict Regarding the Introduction of Family Names in the Duchy of Schleswig.    Christian The Seventh.
It had come to Our attention that in the country of Our Duchy of Schleswig there is almost no usage of
permanent family names, but rather that the son is given as family name the given name of his father,
and that this change occurs at each generation.
Since this is the cause of uncertainties and extensive disputes in matters of inheritance,
and leads to irregularities in the maintenance of debt and other contractual instruments,
We consider it to be useful and good to see to the introduction of permanent family names.
And since such intent is reached easiest and with least problems at future baptisms,
when the child should be given by the pastor a permanent family name,
the initial choice being that of the parents, but thereafter it is not to be changed any more,
We hereby issue this Our decree, to be observed forthwith by Our people.
Issued in the Supreme Court and Supreme Consistory at Gottorf on November 8, 1771.
Extended to the District of Tönning May 15, 1790.

England attacked Copenhagen in 1807, causing the Danes to enter into an alliance with Napoleon's France.

The history of this War (This part is not ready until today and will be added at a later time)

Under the terms of the Peace Treaty of Kiel of January 14, 1814, Denmark lost the Kingdom of Norway, ceded the island of Heligoland to England, but obtained control of the Duchy of Lauenburg.
The Duchies of Lauenburg and Holstein became members of the German Federation with the curious effect that the Danish king, in his capacity as the Duke of Holstein and Lauenburg, became a German prince.
Thus, Holstein became entitled to its own constitution and a commission was formed in August, 1816 to draft one.

However, it was not until May 28, 1831 that four Diets were constituted: Jutland, Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. The government (subordinated to Copenhagen) was established at Gottorf Castle near Schleswig and a Court of Law for all three Duchies at Kiel. Some 2-3% of the population obtained the voting franchise.
By decree of May 14, 1840, the Danish language was introduced in Northern Schleswig as the official school and church language. Two nationalistic factions formed: the Eider Danes who supported Danish dominance in all lands north of the Eider river, and those who were in support of German influence and culture throughout Schleswig. When it became evident that the Danish King would remain without male heir, hereditary disputes arose even prior to his death. A decree of 1665 stipulated that those entitled to hereditary succession would also succeed to his Holstein possessions. At stake was the principle of the Salic Law which does not recognize the female line of succession as contemplated by Denmark. In contrast, the German population , supported by Prussia and Austria , argued that the duchies should be ruled by the Duke of Augustenburg.
On July 8, 1846 the King issued an "open letter" declaring that the Danish succession laws would be valid for Schleswig as well. This increased nationalistic tensions between the "Danish" and the "German" inhabitants of Schleswig Holstein. King Christian VIII died and was succeeded by Frederik VII.
On January 28, 1848 he published a draft of a liberal constitution for the entire state. However, driven by revolutionary movements in Paris, Berlin and Vienna, events accelerated. The Eider-Danish party in Copenhagen sought the realization of their policies while in Rendsburg the representatives of the Duchies demanded that Schleswig be admitted to the German Federation. Under pressure of popular demand the King dissolved the Copenhagen government and established a new one based on the policies of the Eider Danes. Meantime, the Schleswig-Holstein Landespartei (Schleswig-Holstein State Party) formed a "Provisional Government" in Kiel which was recognized in Berlin (by Prussia) and Frankfurt (by the German Federation). Almost the entire Schleswig-Holstein army backed the Kiel government. Denmark had virtually no objections to Holstein's wish to establish closer ties to Germany, but the Freiheitsbrief signed in 1481 decreed that Schleswig and Holstein should "be forever undivided". and this has acted all these centuries like a time bomb. Now it blew up. In 1481 Christian II had intended to bind Holstein closer to the old Danish territory of Schleswig, but in 1848 the Holsteiners pointed to the old document and said "We want to leave Denmark and we will be taking Schleswig with us because the two provinces are to remain forever undivided." War ensued.

The history of this War (This part is not ready until today and will be added at a later time)

An armistice was agreed upon on August 26, 1848. The "Provisional Government" is replaced by a "Joint Government" comprised of conservative Schleswig-Holsteiners. Denmark revoked the armistice on April 3, 1849 and the war continued.

The history of this War (This part is not ready until today and will be added at a later time)

On July 10, 1849 another armistice was agreed upon. Schleswig is occupied by Swedish, Norwegian and Prussian forces. Political negotiations led to an attempted peace treaty on July 2, 1850, however, Prussia refused to sign on and the Schleswig Holstein government was unwilling to support some of the treaty's terms and conditions; war resumed. The history of this War (Link to be come) The Treaty of London dated May 8, 1852 attempted to put the Schleswig Holstein affairs in order. It recognized the Danish Royal Succession; Holstein and Lauenburg were to remain in the German Federation with equal recognition of German and Danish nationality. The Duchies Schleswig and Holstein were separated. On November 15, 1863 King Frederik VII died and - under the terms of the Treaty of London - was succeeded by Christian IX who signed the "Eider-Danish Constitution" on November 18, 1863 to be effective January 1, 1864. In December, 1863, troops from Hanover and Saxony occupy the southern duchies without resistance. On January 16, 1864 Prussia and Austria demanded the withdrawal of the "Eider-Danish Constitution" within 48 hours. Denmark rejected this ultimatum. Consequently, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the Eider river February 1, 1864.

The history of this War (This part is not ready until today and will be added at a later time)

Denmark with an army of 38,000 men armed with muzzle loaders faced Prussian and Austrian armies of 50,000 men armed with modern breech loaders. The Danish army was pushed northward and retreated to Dybbøl, north of Flensburg near Sønderborg, where a series of redoubts were under construction. After heavy shelling by the Prussians, the area was taken on April 18, 1864.

Peace was concluded in Vienna on October 30, 1864. Denmark ceded not only the German Duchy of Holstein but also the whole Duchy of Schleswig. The new border with Denmark is set at the Kongeå (Königsau in German), a small river some 50 km north of Flensburg.
On October 13, 1866, Prussia instituted universal compulsory draft in all its provinces, including the duchies which became Prussian provinces January 12, 1867.
On April 28, 1867 a new system of taxation came into effect; in June of that year a new legal system was instituted; the privileges of the nobility were rescinded; in September, a new system of bureaucracies was established through the formation of Kreis and Distrikt administrations, and "Freedom of Trades" was introduced.
On October 1, 1867, the Prussian Constitution was extended to Schleswig-Holstein. The new Prussian/Danish border placed many Danes outside their home country. On the other hand, the "historic claim" of Denmark for a border at the Eider river was equally objectionable for the many German-speaking people who would be forced to live in Denmark. A new border between Germany and Denmark has become essential.

A plebiscite in 1920 determined a new border between Denmark and Germany. It runs down the Flensburg Fjord to a point just north of the city, and then towards the west to the North Sea north of the island of Sylt. Northern Schleswig was incorporated into Denmark and Southern Schleswig remained in Germany. Sizable minorities remained north and south of the border. After the Second World War the Danish and German governments made a joint declaration in support of safeguarding the rights of the respective minorities. The German and Danish minorities function in examplary fashion today. The "Schleswig-Holstein Question" has found an answer; the "Schleswig-Holstein Problem" has found a solution.

History texts refer to the "Schleswig-Holstein Problem" or the "Schleswig-Holstein Question". Somebody once tried to explain the "problem" by showing who was subject to whom in the scheme of things. The explanation ran somewhat like this: The King of Denmark is: - in his capacity of king, the supreme ruler of Schleswig; - in his capacity as the Duke of Schleswig and Holstein, joint ruler of Schleswig and Holstein together with the Duke of Gottorf; - subject to the rule of the German Emperor as to Holstein only; - co-ruler of the joint ducal portion of both duchies; and - sole ruler of the royal portion of both duchies. The Duke of Gottorf is: - in his capacity as Duke of Schleswig, a subject of the King of Denmark; - Duke of Schleswig and Holstein; - subject to the rule of the German Emperor as to Holstein only; - co-ruler of the joint ducal portion of both duchies.

It is little wonder that Palmerston, the English Prime Minister, is reported to have said: "There are only three men who have ever understood the Schleswig-Holstein Problem: one was Prince Albert, who is dead; the second one was a German professor, who became insane. I am the third and I have forgotten all about it."

EPILOGUE
I have attempted to outline herein the more important historical events pertaining to Schleswig-Holstein. I have remained silent on many events in the interest of brevity. If you believe that the foregoing contains errors, or if you find it advantageous to expand on certain areas, please communicate with me via e-mail or use the guest book on this web site to express your concerns.

No part of this web site may be printed or copied for commercial purposes
without the express permission of the author.

I used the following sources:
- Alexander Scharff, Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte,
    New edition by Manfred Jessen-Klingenberg; published 1984 Verlag Ploetz Freiburg/Würzburg
- Various Internet sites about Danish and Schleswig-Holstein history.

Written Autumn and Winter, 2000 by
Hans Peter Voss
Genealogical Research in Schleswig-Holstein
An de Marsch 6
25557 Steenfeld
Germany

Translated by Juergen P. Schultz, Canada

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